— In optimal control problems, disturbances are typically dealt with using robust solutions, such as H∞ or tube model predictive control, that plan control actions feasible for the worst-case disturbance. Yet, planning for every contingency can lead to over-conservative, poorly performing solutions or even, in extreme cases, to infeasibility. Resilience addresses these shortcomings by adapting the underlying control problem, e.g., by relaxing its specifications, to obtain a feasible, possibly still valuable trajectory. Despite their different aspects, robustness and resilience are often conflated in the context of dynamical systems and control. The goal of this paper is to formalize, in the context of optimal control, the concept of resilience understood as above, i.e., in terms of adaptation. To do so, we introduce a resilient formulation of optimal control by allowing disruption-dependent modifications of the requirements that induce the desired resilient behavior. We then propose a framework to design these behaviors automatically by trading off control performance and requirement violations. We analyze this resilience-by-compromise method to obtain inverse optimality results and quantify the effect of disturbances on the induced requirement relaxations. By proving that robustness and resilience optimize different objectives, we show that these are in fact distinct system properties. We conclude by illustrating the effect of resilience in different control problems.